## Tuesday, 30 May 2017

### Effort Estimation Technique

What are the effort Estimation Techniques in Software Testing?

Estimation is a management activity which calculate how long a Task would take to complete.

Basically organization adapt only two technique :-
1. People who are expertise on the task to be done.
2. Consulting the resource who will do that task.

#### People who are expertise on the task to be done. :-

In this process , we interact with the individual contributors and experts and based on previous data, we create a work-breakdown structure of project. here you get a basic understanding of effore, duration, dependencies and resource requirements.
This is also known as bottom-up estimation technique.

#### Consulting the resource who will do that task.:-

Although we can estimate with experts but to make it more robust we should also consult with experienced resources.
Our experience has been that successful negotiations about estimates are those where the focus is less on winning and losing and more about figuring out how best to balance competing pressures in the realms of quality, schedule, budget and features.

As per the process & CMM standard adopted by the reputed organizations, there are five effort estimation technique :-
1).Function point :-
2).Delphi Technique :-
3).Use-case technique :-
4).Work Break-down structure :-
5).Three point Estimation :-

Function point :- For each function an approximate weightage will be given.
here we focus on mainly three things : Size, Duration and Cost.

based on no. of function and weightage of each function we perform our estimation :-

 Weighatge Function points Total Complex 10 5 50 Medium 6 15 90 Simple 4 25 100 Function Total Points 240 Per point defined Estimate 4.5 Total men Hours 240*4.5= 1080

Delphi Technique :-Here experts will come into esitance & For most of our work packages we use the Delphi method. We just ask the experts for each work package for their best guess, normal guess, and worst guess. Thus we obtain three figures for the expected effort: E(optimistic), E(normal), and E(pessimistic), then combine them with this formula
Effort = (E(optimistic)+4*E(normal)+E(pessimistic))/6.

Use-case technique :-A Use case is a relation between user and system, by the knowledge of use-case over all size of project can be estimated easily.
There is a very clear relation between usecase and code, so there is an approach for estimating and planning with use-case.

### Use Case Point:-

The number of use case points in a project is a function of the following:
the number and complexity of the use cases in the system
the number and complexity of the actors on the system
various non-functional requirements (such as portability, performance, maintainability) that are not written as use cases
the environment in which the project will be developed (such as the language, the team’s motivation, and so on)

Work Break-down structure :-Here we break our project/task in small pieces.

Three point Estimation :- Here we performe our estimation based on statical data.
Based on static data we consider only three things , Best case,Most Likely case &Worst case
and we apply on them double traingle distribution formula :
E = (best case + 4*most likely case + worst case)/6

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## Monday, 29 May 2017

### Parts of Speech

1.Noun :-A Noun is a word that is used to define a person, animal or living object, place, thing or quality.
Example :-Man, town, music.

1.1 Proper Noun :-Start with a capital letter and refers to specific names of person, place or things.
Example :-Volkswagen Beetle, Troy

1.2 Common Noun :-It is just opposite to proper noun and there are just generic names of persons, place or things.
Example :- car, TV shows.

1.3 Concrete Noun :-Concrete nouns are things that you can experience through your five senses: sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch.
Example :- flower, bear, music, Niagara Falls, pie, incense, tornado, ranch, milk, team

1.4 Abstract Noun :-abstract nouns refer to ideas and concepts.
Example :-happiness, grudge, bravery

1.5 Count Noun :- it refers to anything that is countable, and has a singular and plural form
Example :-kitten, video, ball

1.6 Mass Noun :- Mass nouns are also called non-countable nouns, and they need to have “counters” to quantify them.
Example :- rice, flour, garter

1.7 Collective Noun :- Collective nouns are names for a collection or a number of people or things
Example :- group, herd, and array

2. Pronoun :- Pronouns are small words that take the place of noun.
Example :-You, Ours, Some etc.

3. Verb :- Verbs are described as "action words."
Example :-be, have, do etc

4. Adjective :- Adjective are words that are used to clarify a noun.
Example :-a, an, the, big , black etc.

5. Adverb :- An Adverb is a word thst is used to define the action of the verb.
Example :-Loudly, well, carefully

6. Preposition :- A preposition is coming in front of, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word.
Example :- at, in, on , from etc.

7. Conjunction :- A conjuction joins two parts of a sentence.
Example :-and, but, though etc.

8. Interjection :- Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Ouch!, or Ah!
An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mart (!)
Example :- Hurrah!, Alas!

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## Vegetables के नाम हिन्दी और इंग्लीश मे

 0:--> Malabathrum-- तेज पत्ता 1:-->Asparagus --मुस्ली/शतावरी/एक प्रकार का साग 2:-->Basil--तुलसी 3:-->Ash Gourd (ऐश गॉर्ड), Winter Melon (विंटर मेलन) – पेठा [ Petha ] Benincasa hispida 4:-->Amaranth (ऐमरंथ) – चौलाई की सब्जी [ Chaulaee Kee Sabjee ] Amaranthus 5:-->Bean--लोबिया 6:-->Arrowroot (अरोरूट) – अरारोट, शिशुमूल [ Araarot, Shishumool ] Maranta arundinacea 7:-->Black Eye Beans - Green --लोबिया फली 8:-->Artichoke (आर्टिचोक्स) – वज्रांगी, हाथी चक [ Vajraangee, Haathee Chak ] Cynara scolymus 9:-->Carissa carandas--करौंदा 10:-->Beetroot (बीटरूट) – चकुंदर [ Chakundar ] Beta vulgaris 11:-->Bitter Gourd (बिटर गॉर्ड), Charantis (चरंतिस), Bitter Melon (बिटर मेलोन) – करेला [ Karela ] Momordica charantia 12:-->Black Pepper (ब्लैक पीपर) – काली मिर्च [ Kaalee Mirch ] Piper nigrum 13:-->Bottle Gourd (बोटल गॉर्ड), Calabash (कैलाबश), Pumpkin (पम्पकिन), lettuce (लेटिष) – घिया, लौकी, कद्दू [Ghiya, Laukee, Kaddoo ] Lagenaria siceraria 14:-->Cabbage (कैबेज) – पत्तागोभी [ Pattagobhi ] Brassica oleracea var. capitata 15:-->Capsicum (कैप्सिकम), Bell Pepper (बेल पीपर) – शिमला मिर्च [ Shimala Mirch ] Capsicum annuum 16:-->Carrot (कैरट) – गाजर [ Gajar ] Daucus carota subsp. sativus 17:-->Cauliflower (कॉलीफ्लॉवर) – फूल गोभी [ Phool Gobhi ] Brassica oleracea var. botrytis 18:-->Coriander Leaf (कोरिएंडर लीफ) – हरा धनिया [ Hara Dhaniya ] Coriandrum sativum 19:-->Corn (कॉर्न ), Maize (मेज़) – मक्का [ Makka ] Zea mays 20:-->Chervil--नन्दपर्ण, चरविल 21:-->Celery (सेलेरी) – आजमोदा [ Aamjamoda ] Apium graveolens 22:-->Chilli (चिल्ली), Red Chilli (रैड चिल्ली) – मिर्च, लाल मिर्च [ Mirch , Laal Mirch ] Capsicum frutescens 23:-->Cluster Beans (क्लस्टर बीन्स), French Beans (फ्रेंच बीन्स) – गवार फली [ Gwaar Fali ] Cyamopsis tetragonoloba 24:-->Cucumber (कुकुम्बर) – खीरा [ Kheera ] Cucumis sativus 25:-->Curry Leaf (करी लीफ) – कढ़ी पत्ता [ Kadhi Patta ] Murraya koenigii 26:-->Eggplant (एग प्लांट), Aubergine (ऑबरजीन ), Brinjal (ब्रिंजल) – बैगन [ Baigan ] Solanum melongena 27:-->Garbanzo Beans (गार्बेन्जो बीन्स), Chickpeas (चिकपीस), Bengal Gram (बेंगोल ग्राम) – चना [ Chanaa ] Cicer arietinum 28:-->Fenugreek Leaf (फेनुग्रीक लीफ) – हरी मेथी [ Hari Methi ] Trigonella foenum-graecum 29:-->Fava Beans (फावा बीन्स), Broad Beans (ब्रॉड बीन्स), Horse Beans (हॉर्स बीन्स) – बाकला , सेम फली [ Baakala , Sem Phalee ] Vicia faba 30:-->Garlic (गार्लिक) – लहसुन [ Lahasun ] Allium sativum 31:-->Ginger (जिंजर) – अदरक [ Adarak ] Zingiber officinale 32:-->Green chilli (ग्रीन चिल्ली) – हरी मिर्च [ Haree Mirch ] Capsicum annuum 33:-->Green Beans (ग्रीन बीन्स) – हरी सेम, सेम की फलियां [ Haree Sem, Sem Kee Phaliyaan ] Phaseolus vulgaris 34:-->Daikon--मूली 35:-->Jackfruit (जैकफ्रूट) – कटहल [ Katahal ] Artocarpus heterophyllus 36:-->Lady Finger (लेडी फिंगर), Oakra (ओकरा) – भिन्डी [ Bhindee ] Abelmoschus esculentus 37:-->Mushroom (मशरुम) – कुम्भी, कुकुरमुत्ता [ Kumbhee, Kukuramutta ] Agaricus Bisporus 38:-->Mustard Greens (मस्टर्ड ग्रीन्स), Greens (ग्रीन्स) – सरसों पत्ता [ Sarson Patta ] Brassica juncea 39:-->Natal Plum (नेटल पल्म) – करोंदा [ Karonda ] Carissa macrocarpa 40:-->Onion (अनियन) – प्याज [ Pyaz ] Allium cepa 41:-->Peas (पीज) – मटर [ Matar ] Pisum sativum 42:-->Peppermint (पेपरमिंट), Mint (मिंट) – पुदीना [ Pudeena ] Mentha × piperita 43:-->Pointed Gourd (पॉइंटेड गॉर्ड) – परवल [ Paraval ] Trichosanthes dioica 44:-->Dried Green Peas--सुखे मटर 45:-->Potato (पोटैटो) – आलू [ Aaloo ] Solanum tuberosum 46:-->Purslane (पर्सलेन) – कुलफा [ Kulapha ] Portulaca oleracea 47:-->Elephant ear --सूरण 48:-->Foxnut--मखाना 49:-->Ridged Gourd (रिज्डगॉर्ड), Luffa (लुफ़्फ़ा) – तोरी, [ Turai ] Luffa aegyptiaca 50:-->Snake Gourd (स्नेक गॉर्ड) – चिचिण्डा , चचेंडा [ Chichinda , Chachenda ] Trichosanthes cucumerina 51:-->Spring Onion --हरी पियाज 52:-->Spinach (स्पिनच) – पालक [ Palak ] Spinacia oleracea 53:-->Serpent gourd --चिचिंड़ा 54:-->Sweet Potato (स्वीट पोटेटो) – शकर कन्द [ Shakar Kand ] Ipomoea batatas 55:-->Tomato (टोमेटो) – टमाटर [ Tamaatar ] Solanum lycopersicum 56:-->Turmeric (टरमेरिक) – हल्दी [ Haldee ] Curcuma longa 57:-->Turnip (टर्निप) – शलगम [ Shalagam ] Brassica rapa subsp. rapa 58:-->White Goose Foot (वाइट गूस फुट) – बथुआ [ Bathua ] Chenopodium album 59:-->Lemon--नींबू/गलगल 60:-->Lotus Stem, Lotus root--कमल ककड़ी, भें, नतल प्लम

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